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ANATOMY OF A ROSE

Before we prune anything,

 it's helpful to review some anatomy.


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ROSES ARE EASY

PLANTIING ROSES

PRUNING ROSES



 Thorns, Spines and Prickles.... ouch - look at these...


MAIN CANES


MAIN CANES: grow straight up and support the bush, especially in a climber.



LATERAL CANES


LATERAL CANES:  grow from the main canes and need to be gently trained horizontally (as close to 45 degrees as possible) because they are the only canes (especially on climbers) that bloom.



SUCKERS


SUCKERS -  can emerge from  2  places:

     One: on a grafted rose, a sucker will grow from the original rootstock

     Two: a sucker can grow from the graft.

                           (see sketch above)

If a cane grows from the rootstock, the sucker will produce a cane that may flower, but it won't be the same as the rose you purchased.

The base root (or rootstock) is chosen for its hardiness to support the newly grafted (or 'budded") rose which could otherwise be too tender for some zones. 

Remove the sucker because it can literally “suck” the nutrients from the root before they reach your (grafted) rose.

HOW? - Gently pull aside the soil from the base, until you can reach the sucker and tear it off.

If you cut it, it will grow back.



ROSE LEAFLETS

: 3 leaves and 5 leaves

Deadhead above a 5 leaflet

as the cane will be thicker

and strong enough to support a new bloom 



BUD UNION


BUD UNION is the area, knot or nubby growth at the base

 of the rose where all canes start.

The bud union is on both an "own root" or "grafted" rose

(where one rose has been grafted/budded

onto a stronger base or rootstock).

(sketch below)

Always plant your rose so the bud union is beneath the surface of the soil - especially in zones with freezing winters:

4 to 5 inches below soil surface.



GRAFTED-ROSE 


BUD UNIONBud Union on a Grafted Rose

Grafted roses are grown so a less hardy rose can survive in colder climates by being supported underground by a hardy root or rootstock like "Dr. Huey" a common rootstock for grafted roses.  If the graft dies, the rose will continue with Dr. Huey... a tough, rose that will grow most anywhere.

grafted-rose-SKGrafted Rose

grafted-rose-tree-SKRose-Tree-Graft

Rose Trees are usually strong, upright canes with one or more other roses grafted to the top of the cane so they look like a small tree.

This makes overwintering these roses difficult... 

          See OVERWINTERING ROSES for more.


grafted-rose-2-SKGrafted Rose also

Some grafted roses will have the graft to one side of the rootstock and some, grafted at the top.  Growers may graft 2 roses to the same root and then see which one will take... sometimes both and sometime only one.


OWN-ROOT ROSE


own-root-rose-SKOwn Root Rose

OWN ROOT ROSES grow on their own root.. no graft. These roses are sometimes hardier than grafted roots, especially in zones lower than 5 or 6.

They don't have to support 2 different roses.


WHAT'S A BUD-EYE?


BUD-EYE: is the little swelling where new growth emerges

with a small half circle beneath.

Usually there is one main eye on a cane

with 2 "guard" eyes - one on each side,

so if one dies, the other will grow.


Bud EyeEmerging Bud Eye

Above: Rose cane's emerging bud-eye

Emerged Bud Eye

Above: Rose cane's emerged bud-eye 

The sketched bud-eye looks like an

OUTWARD FACING BUD,

 meaning it faces away from the centre

of the rose bush.

HOW TO TELL?...picture a line down the centre of the bush

and decide if the bud is facing inward

toward the centre

or facing toward the outside of the bush.

The new "modern" roses are hardier and more disease resistant,

so there isn't the same need to keep the centre open for air flow.




BASAL BREAKS


BASAL BREAKS are 

 the new reddish stems (or shoots) growing from the canes.

Basal breaks mean your rose is healthy

and putting up new canes that will bloom next season..

Be careful  though... they are fragile at first and if you knock one off by mistake, it will not re-grow.

Basal breaks will eventually replace

older, tired and bloomed-out canes.

On Own Root roses, basal breaks come from the base of the rose.

On Grafted (budded roses), basal breaks come from the graft itself. 

When the basal break reaches about a foot tall,

prune it back to a bud eye.

This forces the cane to branch out with more flowers.

When you shorten the cane, it has more energy for blooms.

New canes coming up from the ground,

might also be suckers coming from the rootstock

and below the graft.

(see also SUCKERS)


Basal BreaksBasal Breaks are the new reddish canes


If your rose is a grafted rose,

and buried deep below the soil level,

the basal breaks might appear

as though growing separately from the stem 

as in the sketch above.




Be careful not to confuse new healthy growth

with 

Rose Rosette Disease (RRD).

HEALTHY ON THE LEFT

 ROSE ROSETTE ON THE RIGHT

See also: roserosette.org


BLIND SHOOTS


A BLIND SHOOT: grows tall quickly

but won't produce blooms

unless you prune it back to a healthy bud-eye.

One cause of blind shoots

is a late frost in the early spring

which can kill off new little end buds. 


Blind ShootBlind Shoot

ROSE HIPS



When a rose “sets hips”

it sends a signal that discourages

the rose from producing flowers -

It then creates a seed pod

and the rose knows it is time to go dormant.

Leave the hips for the birds (Vitamin C)



HOME

ROSES

ROSE ROSETTE DISEASE

THORNS,SPINES and PRICKLES

PRUNING ROSES

PLANTING ROSES


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